As I have discussed in prior posts (refer here for example), one of the recurring D&O insurance coverage issues that has arisen in connection with the FDIC’s failed bank litigation is the question whether or not the FDIC’s claims as receiver for the failed bank against the bank’s former directors and officers trigger the D&O policy’s insured vs. insured exclusion. In a terse January 4, 2013 opinion (here), Northern District of Georgia Judge Robert L. Vining, Jr. held that, owing to the “multiple roles” in which the FDIC acts in pursuing claims against the former directors and officers of a failed bank, there is “ambiguity” on the question whether the FDIC’s lawsuit triggers the insured vs. insured exclusion.



Omni National Bank of Atlanta Georgia failed on March 27, 2009 (refer here). The FDIC was appointed as receiver for the failed bank. On March 16, 2012, the FDIC initiated a lawsuit in the Northern District of Georgia against ten former directors and officers of the bank, asserting claims against the defendants for negligence and gross negligence in connection with the approval of certain loans on low-income residential properties.


The bank’s D&O insurer initiated a separate declaratory judgment action seeking a declaration that there is no coverage under the bank’s D&O policy for the FDIC’s claims against the bank’s former directors and officers.


The D&O insurer filed a motion for summary judgment the declaratory judgment action, on three grounds: first: the carrier argued that because the FDIC as receiver “steps into the shoes” of the failed bank, the FDIC’s claim represents a claim “by, on behalf of, or at the behest of, the Company,” and therefore is precluded from coverage under the policy’s insured vs. insured exclusion; second, that the losses the FDIC seeks to recover do not fall within the policy’s definition of “loss,” which includes the so-called “loan loss carve-out”; and third that the policy does not in any event provide coverage for wrongful acts alleged against the former directors and officers that took place after the policy’s expiration.


The January 4 Opinion

In his January 4, 2013 opinion, Judge Vining denied the carrier’s motion for summary judgment with on the first two grounds, but granted summary judgment with respect to the alleged wrongful acts that took place after the policy’s expiration.


In rejecting the insurer’s argument that coverage is precluded by the policy’s insured vs. insured exclusion, Judge Vining said that “it is unclear whether the FDIC-R’s claims are ‘by ‘or ‘on behalf of’ the failed bank.” He added that “it is unclear what exactly is encompassed by the phrase ‘steps into the shoes.” These “ambiguities” arise, Judge Vining found, “in part because the FDIC-R differs from other receivers or conservators that might step into the shoes of a failed or insolvent bank.”


Judge Vining then reviewed the FDIC’s authority under FIREEA to recover losses, and the fact that in recovering losses the FDIC has authority to act on behalf of the bank’s depositors, creditors and shareholders.  Judge Vining noted that “the FDIC-R has multiple roles.” Accordingly, he concluded that “the FDIC-R has show that some ambiguity exists in the insured versus insured exclusion,” and he denied the carrier’s motion for summary judgment in reliance on the exclusion.


Judge Vining also rejected the carrier’s motion for summary judgment based on the argument that the financial losses the FDIC sought to recover did not constitute covered loss under the policy. Judge Vining found that “ambiguity exists in the definition of ‘loss’” because the “loan loss carve-out” does not “clearly exempt tortious claims” which is “the basis” for the FDIC’s claims in the underlying D&O liability action.



Although D&O insurers have raised the insured vs. insured exclusion as a defense to coverage in connection with a number of FDIC failed bank claims, Judge Vining’s ruling in the Omni National Bank is so far as I am aware only the second ruling in connection with the current failed bank wave in which a court has made a ruling regarding the applicability of the insured v. insured exclusion to an action brought by the FDIC in its capacity as a receiver for a failed bank.


As discussed here, in October 2012, District of Puerto Rico Judge Gustavo Gelpi denied the D&O insurer’s motion to dismiss the coverage action the FDIC had brought against the carrier under Puerto Rico’s direct action statute. The D&O carrier involved had sought to dismiss the suit on the grounds that the D&O policy’s insured vs. insured exclusion precluded coverage for the FDIC’s claims in its capacity of the failed Westernbank against the bank’s former directors and officers. Judge Gelpi declined to dismiss the action, noting that the FDIC has authority under FIRREA to act “on behalf of depositors, account holders, and a depleted insurance fund,” and therefore that “the FDIC’s role as a regulator sufficiently distinguishes it from those whom the parties intended to prevent from bringing claims under the Exclusion.”


In both cases, the respective judges held that the carriers were not entitled to a determination as a matter of law that the exclusion precluded coverage. Both Judge Gelpi in the prior case and Judge Vining here determined that the Insured vs. Insured did not preclude coverage as a matter of law because the FDIC has the authority under FIRREA to act on behalf of a variety of different constituencies. The FDIC as well as individual directors and officers seeking coverage under their bank’s D&O insurance policies undoubtedly will seek to rely on these rulings in order to try to fight other carrier’s attempts to assert the Insured vs. Insured exclusion as a defense to coverage.


The insurers, however, will likely contend that even if the FDIC is acting on behalf of these other constituencies in bringing the suit, it is first and foremost bringing the suit in its capacity as receiver for the failed bank, as that is the basis upon which it has any right to bring the claims in the first place. The insurers will further argue that the sole basis on which the FDIC has any right to assert the claims is because, by operation of the receivership, it is acting “in the right of” the failed bank, and therefore the preclusive language of the exclusion applies, notwithstanding the fact that the FDIC may have other purposes and motivations in bringing the action.


The carriers will further argue that the policy’s exclusion does not require, in order for the exclusion to apply, that the action be brought “solely” or “only” “in the right of” the Organization. The insurers will argue that because the action was brought “in the right of” the Organization, the exclusion applies notwithstanding the fact that in bringing the claim the FDIC was also action on behalf of other constituencies.


Though these rulings unquestionably are helpful for the FDIC and the individual directors and officers, it seems likely that these issues will continue to be litigated in other cases.


Special thanks to a loyal reader for providing me with a copy of Judge Vining’s January 4 Order.