Most reasonably sophisticated consumers understand that the cheapest running shoes may be no bargain, that the least expensive cellular plan may have big gaps, and that selecting legal counsel based on which attorney charges the least is fraught with peril. Yet when it comes to D&O insurance, these same buyers are often only concerned with which is the lowest cost alternative, without complete consideration whether the cheapest coverage fully addresses their insurance needs.


The assumption behind many insurance purchasing decisions is that the various alternatives are basically equivalent, and the only relevant variable is price. Whether or not this assumption would be valid for personal insurance like home or auto, for which the insurance is generally issued on standard forms, it definitely is not true with respect to D&O insurance.



There is no standard D&O insurance policy form; to the contrary, the various carriers’ base forms vary significantly, and many of the key terms are negotiable, particularly with respect to public company D&O insurance.



So the assessment of D&O insurance alternatives often involves – or rather should involve – careful comparison between a host of relative advantages and disadvantages, among which price is one of many important factors to be considered.



Despite the many subtle but nonetheless critically important differences between D&O insurance alternatives, many insurance buyers, even those who otherwise qualify as very sophisticated, ultimately make their selection based solely upon price, even though they would never depend solely on price alone when selecting, say, a pair of running shoes, a cellular plan, or an attorney to represent them.



When it comes to running shoes, cellular plans or attorneys, consumers both understand what these goods and services are for and they also fully expect to use these goods and services. When it comes to D&O insurance, however, the same buyers are unconsciously assuming that they will never actually need to use the product, and that the insurance acquisition is nothing more than a box-checking exercise. D&O insurance? Yep, got that.



The one subset of insurance buyers who do not need to be reminded when selecting among D&O insurance alternatives of how important it is to consider all issues, and not just price, are company officials who have previously been involved in a D&O claim. These individuals fully understand what D& O insurance is for, and they often have a deep appreciation of the way that seemingly small difference in policy language can have a significant impact on the extent of coverage in the event of a claim.



After over a quarter of a century of involvement with directors’ and officers’ liability issues, I have seen hundreds of claims involving thousands of individual director and officer defendants. I have seen highly regarded individuals, who have amassed a lifetime’s worth of wealth and prestige, have everything they worked for their entire careers come crashing down around them. I have seen formerly powerful executives taken away in handcuffs. I have seen grown men cry. None of these individuals ever thought they would ever find themselves in these circumstances – but they did. I guarantee you that not one of them, finding themselves caught up in these circumstances, thought to themselves “Boy, I sure am glad we got the cheapest D&O insurance we could find.” .



The D&O insurance acquisition process cannot be built on the assumption that those things might happen, but not to my company and certainly not to me.  The entire acquisition process has to be built on the assumption that these things will happen to this company.



Of course, not all D&O claims are catastrophic, but the one thing I know for sure about D&O claims is that, whether or not they are catastrophic, the quality of the D&O insurance available at the time of the claim is critically important. The time to analyze whether or not the D&O insurance program is built to respond to the range of possible claims circumstances is not when the claim comes in, but when the insurance is purchased.



Cost is of course an indispensible consideration and price considerations should always be taken into account. In fact, I have many times recommended to clients that they select an alternative that is the lowest cost option. But when I make that recommendation, price alone is neither the sole nor the most important criterion.



D&O insurance buyers whose advisors recommend the lowest priced alternative need to consider whether (a) the advisor is recommending the lowest priced alternative because it really is the best option for the company based on full consideration of all relevant factors; (b) the advisor is recommending the lowest price alternative because he or she thinks that is what the buyer wants to hear and that’s what it will take for the advisor to get or keep the business, and he or she doesn’t have the guts to provide an independent and fully considered recommendation; or (c) the advisor doesn’t have a clue what the important differences are between the available alternatives and the only distinction the advisor can explain is the cost difference.



I am often asked to review public companies’ D&O insurance programs. In many cases, the companies have insurance programs that are more or less matched to their requirements and circumstances. But in a surprising number of cases, the programs I review lack critically important features that could dramatically affect the availability of coverage in various claims circumstances. Sometimes these underserved policyholders are also over-paying for their insurance, which has its own set of implications. But more often, the company itself has selected into an inadequate insurance program because they chose their insurance based solely on price.



Price considerations alone are not enough to allow a buyer to select the best running shoes, cellular plan or legal counsel. Price considerations are important of course, because no one should overpay for something. Often the way to make the optimal purchase is to get assistance from someone who knows more about the products and services.



Insurance buyers may never have to use their D&O insurance, but policyholders don’t want to find out when a claim arises that the cheap insurance they bought was no bargain. That is why it is indispensible to have a skilled and experienced insurance advisor involved in the D&O insurance transaction, one that understands and can explain the differences between the insurance alternatives and that can recommend the alterative that will best meets the company’s needs and finances.



Where are You Going, Al? Can’t You Read?: Any alpaca having the temerity to disregard this sign will find itself in very serious trouble.