One of Congress’ goals when it instituted the "lead plaintiff" provisions of the PSLRA was to encourage institutional investors to become more involved in controlling and monitoring securities class action lawsuits. But now that institutional investors are indeed more involved in securities lawsuits, the question has become – what difference has it made? A recent academic study suggests that institutional investor involvement in securities litigation not only enhances investors’ success in seeking financial recovery, but also improves the quality of the defendant companies’ corporate governance. The authors conclude that securities litigation is an effective corporate monitoring tool for institutional investors.
A January 2009 paper entitled "Institutional Monitoring through Shareholder Litigation" (here), by Agnes Cheng of LSU, Henry He Huang of Prairie View A&M University, Yinghua Li of Purdue, and Gerald Lobo of University of Houston, examined all securities lawsuits that were filed from January 1, 1996 to July 20, 2005 and that had been resolved by June 1, 2006. 1,811 lawsuits met these selection criteria, of which 1,525 lawsuits were led by individual lead plaintiffs, 178 lawsuits were led by at least one public/union pension fund or mutual fund, and 108 lawsuits were led by other categories of institutions.
Among other things, the authors found a "trend of increasing institutional involvement in securities litigation." The percentage of lawsuits with institutional investor lead plaintiffs has more than doubled from less than 15% in 1996 to more than 30% in 2004.
The authors were most concerned in determining the effect of institutional investor involvement in case outcomes. Prior research had already shown (as reflected in my prior post, here) that cases with institutional investor lead plaintiffs result in larger settlements, primarily because institutional investors tend to become more involved in the larger, more serious cases.
In order to be able to control for the differences due to the kind of case in which institutional investors become involved, the authors identified the "determinants" that affect institutional investor involvement and used these factors as control variables. The authors identified a range of variable associated with the increased likelihood of institutional investor involvement, including merit and potential damages, size of the defendant company, and prior performance of the defendant company.
Among other things, the authors found that institutional investors are more likely to be involved when the case does not involve an IPO, when accounting issues are present, and when accounting firms are involved. The cases also tend to involve longer class periods, more significant investor losses and companies with higher levels of institutional shareholdings.
The authors used a multivariable regression analysis to control for these case differences, in order to be able to determine the impact attributable to having an institutional investor as the lead plaintiff. The authors found that after controlling for the determinants of having an institutional investor lead plaintiff, "lawsuits with an institutional lead plaintiff are less likely to be dismissed and have significantly larger settlements."
Specifically, the authors found that "institutional plaintiffs play a significant role in defeating the defendant firm’s motion to dismiss," finding that "an institutional lead plaintiff can reduce the dismissal probability by 38.2%" The authors found this relationship held even when tested against control variables relating to the possibility that the institutional lead plaintiffs simply selected the most meritorious cases.
The authors also found that the presence of an institutional lead plaintiff "can increase the total settlement amount by approximately 59.8%," when controlling for all the various factors that might be due to the type of case in which institutional investors tend to become involved. The authors concluded that "having an institutional investor lead plaintiff is associated with both a statistically and an economically larger impact on the settlement amount than having an individual lead plaintiff."
Finally, the authors also found that within three years of the lawsuit filing, defendant companies that faced institutional investor lead plaintiffs experienced greater improvement in board independence than those facing individual lead plaintiffs.
To measure this impact, the authors looked at changes in three variables within three years of the lawsuit filing: percentage of independent boar members in the full board, percentage of independent audit committee members, and whether there is a lead director. The authors found that the presence of an institutional lead plaintiff was associate with more significant reform in these three areas, from which the authors concluded that "the impact of securities class action on governance change depends on the type of lead plaintiff."
From these various observations, the authors conclude that "institutional investors’ involvement in securities litigation enhances not only investors’ success in seeking financial recovery, but also the quality of the defendant firms’ corporate governance." From this, the authors further conclude that "institutional investors could use litigation as a mechanism to discipline management and to secure the long-term health of the firm"
The authors noted the increasing incidence of institutional investors choosing to opt out of certain class settlements, which the authors note suggests that some investors may find opting out and filing individual lawsuits to be a stronger monitoring tool that leading the class action. The authors, citing recent research by Columbia Law Professor John Coffee (about which refer here), observed that "while the reasons for institutions opting out are interesting, our empirical sample limits our ability to study that issue." The questions surrounding institutional investors’ willingness to opt out raises a host of interesting issues, not the least of which is the relative importance on a continuing basis of class action litigation of a monitoring tool along the lines the authors suggest. The authors note that this is an interesting question for another day.
One final observation about the authors’ interesting study is that their article, like an increasing amount of legal literature, depends on the application of sophisticated mathematical tools to problems arising in the legal context. While this approach unquestionably has its value, it does make for some daunting presentations and some impenetrable analyses.
I certainly am in no position to question (much less fully appreciate) the validity of the authors’ quantitative approach. I confess that I must simply take it on faith that the authors’ regression analyses are both suitable and properly applied. The more critical approach I generally prefer to take is simply not an option for me when it comes to considering this type of quantitative analysis. I am uncomfortable taking so much on appearances – the authors’ work certainly appears to be rigorous – but without undertaking a massive self-reeducation project, I am hardly in a position to do anything differently.
At least I understand and appreciate the authors’ conclusions. Like a docile and uncritical church congregation, I know when to say "Amen."
A post on the Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance and Financial Regulation blog about the authors’ paper can be found here.
Inspiring Words: While reading Ronald C. White, Jr.’s literary biography of Abraham Lincoln entitled The Eloquent President (here), I had occasion to re-read Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address, including the speech’s stirring final paragraph:
I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.
It is easy for us now to admire the eloquence of these words at the remove of nearly a century and a half and with the luxury of time for quiet reflection, but the words are even more impressive when considered in the context of the circumstances in which they were first delivered. At the time of the inauguration, seven states had already seceded; the very next day, Lincoln would receive word from the commander of Fort Sumter that his supplies were nearly exhausted. Lincoln’s optimistic words reflect an earnest but nearly impossible hope for reconciliation at one of our nation’s darkest hours.
Reading Lincoln’s words filled me with the same feelings I had when listening to Winston Churchill’s "Battle of Britain" speeches while I was touring the War Cabinet Rooms in London earlier this year. Both examples underscore the powerful potential of words to illuminate and inspire, even in desperate and hopeless times.
One of the more interesting details about this paragraph of Lincoln’s speech is that it was the result of an unlikely collaboration between Lincoln and his Secretary of State, William Seward. As well-told in Doris Kearns Goodwin’s excellent book, Team of Rivals, Lincoln and Seward would go on to become political allies and close friends, but at the outset of Lincoln’s presidency, they were political rivals who hardly knew each other and who had never worked together. Lincoln set aside his ego and not only asked Seward to review his draft speech, but he adopted most of Seward’s suggestions.
The most fascinating part of this collaboration is how Lincoln adopted Seward’s suggestions. White’s book puts Seward’s suggestions and Lincoln’s final text in side by side columns, which highlights how Lincoln transformed Seward’s proposed language, sometimes in subtle, sometimes in powerful ways. For example, Seward did indeed suggest the phrase "mystic chords" but Lincoln rendered the phrase as "mystic chords of memory." Seward suggested "the guardian angel of the nation," which Lincoln changed into "the better angels of our nature." Lincoln turned Seward’s well-intentioned prose into meaningful, musical poetry, with words that still resonate and inspire.
The transformative power of Lincoln’s use of language was not lost on Seward; he came to appreciate the power of Lincoln’s words perhaps as much as anyone. Though Seward presumed to make six pages of suggestions to Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address, his presumptions changed as he came to know Lincoln better. Three years later, when asked if he had helped Lincoln write the Gettysburg Address, Seward said, "No one but Abraham Lincoln could have made that address."
One of the more remarkable things about Lincoln’s powerful use of language is that he had less than one year of formal education. For some reason, in our own time, we have restricted higher office eligibility to individuals who acquired at least a part of their higher education at one of two elite Eastern universities. Indeed, the current President and his three immediate predecessors all share this common educational connection. I am not sure why this peculiarly narrow form of educational elitism now predominates our politics, but the danger is that something vital and fundamentally American could be lost as a result.
One interesting note about Lincoln’s first inauguration is that Lincoln was the ninth President for whom Chief Justice Roger Taney administered the oath of office, a feat of longevity and endurance that so unlikely that is seems incomprehensible. Given our current Chief Justice’s relative youth, one can wonder whether he might eventually swear in as many Presidents as Taney. Perhaps in future inaugurations, Chief Justice Roberts will actually administer the Oath’s required words correctly, on the first try.
In our time, the Gettysburg Address, the Emancipation Proclamation and even Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address may all be better remembered than the speech Lincoln delivered at his first inauguration. Lincoln’s words in his other speeches are indeed memorable. But it seems to me that in our time as throughout our history, the mystic chords of memory unite us to our past and our aspirations now more than ever and the prayerful hope for the influence of the better angels of our nature remain as strong as ever.
Lincoln’s words remind us that our nation’s history includes days that were darker than even those today, but even in those desperate times, we never lost hope and we did persevere — as Lincoln might have said, with God’s help.