As I discussed in a recent post, on June 23, 2010, the Ninth Circuit issued an opinion reinstating the $277.5 million jury verdict in the Apollo Group securities class action lawsuit. In my post discussing the opinion, I included some observations about the Ninth Circuit’s ruling and the likely future course of the Apollo Group case, as well as about the current state of play on post-PSLRA jury trials in securities class action lawsuits in general.
Over the weekend, Tower Snow of the Howard Rice law firm sent me a note commenting on my observations. Because I think Tower makes a number of interesting points, I asked his permission to reproduce his observations on this blog. Tower very graciously gave me permission, and the text of his email is reproduced in indented text below.
Although I rarely disagree with what you post on the blog, I do disagree with the conclusions you draw re where the Apollo case is heading.
The Ninth Circuit reversed based on the concept that the market may have failed to appreciate the significance of earlier disclosures and that any earlier disclosures may not have been of sufficient intensity and credibility for the market to understand them. Thus, according to the Ninth Circuit, the jury could properly conclude that the disclosure at issue was "corrective." These are alien concepts to economists and the efficient market theory.
There is a vast universe of economic studies and literature which incontrovertibly shows that the financial markets are incredibly efficient (and sophisticated) and absorb and properly evaluate new information entering the markets in a matter of minutes. There is no respected economic literature which supports the idea that markets sometimes "fail to appreciate the significance" of negative information or that markets may be misled by disclosures because they are not of sufficient "intensity or credibility" to be fully understood. To the contrary, all the studies conclude the opposite.
The courts can’t rely on the efficient market theory for purposes of creating a rebuttable presumption of reliance for purposes of class certification and then ignore its underpinnings for purposes of evaluating loss causation. Either one embraces the theory or one does not. If one embraces it, then once it is established that the prior disclosures revealed the truth about the allegedly misstated or omitted information, there is nothing left for the jury to decide. The later disclosure, by definition, cannot be corrective, as the market already had absorbed the information. Here, the "corrective" disclosure came out seven days after the information had been previously released. Seven days is an eternity in the financial markets.
The district court denied the defendants’ motion for summary judgment on this issue because it had not heard the evidence. When it did, the court properly concluded that the "corrective" disclosure was old news. It was, and it could not under well established economic doctrine have caused plaintiffs’ losses. The district court got it right.
This case has a good chance of eventually making its way to the Supreme Court. If it does so, the defendants will win. Loss causation is too important an issue, and the lower courts are all over the map in applying the efficient market doctrine in different contexts. Either the efficient market theory has to be embraced and applied consistently, as economists apply it, or it should be thrown out.
For what it is worth, I also come to a different conclusion re Post-PSLRA trial results. Although your win/loss numbers are correct, when one takes into account post plaintiff-verdict settlements and plaintiff verdicts in the context of the damages sought, plaintiffs have done very poorly. What the trials show is that juries view investing as a high risk game, they hold investors accountable for their actions and losses, and they are not inclined when seeing individual officers and directors– absent very compelling evidence — to easily conclude that they engaged in fraud. Couple these dynamics with plaintiffs’ fear of post-trial adverse rulings, the dangers of appeals, the time delays, and a host of other factors, and it becomes apparent that even a plaintiff "win" often turns into a loss. I personally doubt whether either the Apollo or Vivendi verdict will survive.
I would like to express my thanks to Tower for taking the time to send a detailed commentary and for his willingness to allow me to reproduce it here. I welcome submissions from responsible persons who are interested in proposing guest posts for publication on this blog. I am in any event always interested in hearing what readers think.