In what is, according to news reports (here), the largest settlement to date in a shareholders’ derivative lawsuit in Delaware Chancery Court, four former AIG executives and former AIG managing general agent C.V. Starr today reached a $115 million settlement in the 2002 AIG derivative lawsuit.


The lawsuit was filed by the Teachers’ Retirement System of Louisiana in 2002 against AIG, as nominal defendant; certain former AIG directors and officers (many of whom were later dropped from the case); and Starr.


According to news reports (here), the plaintiff alleged that half of the $2 billion AIG paid C.V. Starr between 2000 and 2005 "represented sham commissions for work that, in some cases, was done by AIG employees." The lawsuit also questioned "why some executives were allowed to serve simultaneously as officers of C.V. Starr, a closely held insurance agency, while profiting from business between the two companies." The complaint also alleged that Starr gave the individual defendants bonuses on fees from AIG. In effect the complaint alleged that the commissions were a mechanism for the defendants to "line their pockets."


The case was scheduled to go to trial on September 15, 2008. The four settling individual defendants include former AIG Chairman and CEO Maurice Greenberg; former AIG CFO Howard Smith; former Vice Chairman of Investments Edward Matthews; and former director and Vice Chairman of Insurance Thomas Tizzio.


The vast bulk of the settlement — $85.5 million – is to be paid by AIG’s D&O insurance carriers. A list of the carriers on AIG’s D&O program can be found here.


The more interesting question is where the remaining $29.5 million will come from. Some of the news reports give the impression that the individuals are funding the settlement. However, it appears that the individuals themselves are funding only a small portion of the remaining $29.5 million.


Greenberg’s counsel’s statements to the press (for example, here) are quite emphatic that Greenberg himself will not be contributing anything the settlement. One news report (here) does suggest that Tizzio "is expected to pay between $1 million and $5 million," Smith and Matthews "would pay very small amounts, if anything."


It appears that the bulk of the $29.5 million will be paid by C.V. Starr. According to Greenberg’s counsel, Starr "expects to contribute between $20 million and $30 million."


The details about who will be paying what seem surprisingly imprecise. In particular, the wide potential variance in Tizzio’s contributions seem odd to me, as even a wealthy individual generally would require a more precise determination of how many millions of his dollars are going to be required. Which makes me wonder whether perhaps Tizzio has an individual source of insurance that may be contributing on his behalf.


There are a variety of other odd features to this settlement, at least as it is described in the news reports, the most striking of which is that Tizzio apparently will be making a material settlement contribution but apparently Greenberg will not. To be sure, C.V. Starr, of which Greenberg is still Chairman and CEO, will be making a more than $20 million contribution, raising the question whether the amount of Starr’s contribution and the fact that Greenberg himself is not contributing to the settlement are linked.


And even with respect to C.V. Starr’s contribution, certain questions arise. For example, given the fact that some or all of the individual defendants apparently were also officers of C.V. Starr, is Starr’s D&O carrier funding some or all of Starr’s contribution to the settlement?


It should also be noted with respect to Starr’s payment to AIG that Starr is in fact AIG’s largest shareholder. As of July 15, 2008, Starr owned 10.5% of AIG’s outstanding shares, which represents Starr’s largest asset. Maybe that is just context, but it is an interesting context nonetheless.


I also have questions concerning the $85.5 million contribution from AIG’s D&O carriers. Beyond sheer curiosity about how much of AIG’s D&O insurance tower was depleted by defense expense, I also wonder whether the insurer’s settlement contribution to this derivative settlement drew upon the insurance program’s Side A coverage, which provides protection for nonindemnifiable loss. You would not expect the $85.5 million payment to AIG to be indemnifiable in the absence of insurance, so all else equal the amount would seem to represent a Side A loss. The same would also seem to be true with respect to the individuals’ own separate contribution to the settlement.


My question about which D&O policy coverage funded the settlement may require some context. Given the size of this derivative settlement, as well as other recent large derivative settlements (including, for example, the $50 million Hollinger derivative settlement), there seems to be a growing threat of very large derivative settlements, which is a relatively new development.


Many companies, particularly large financial services companies, often have D&O insurance programs built exclusively or predominantly of Side A-only protection. These kinds of programs have become increasingly common in recent years, but in general losses have really not yet caught up to this coverage to a significant degree.


The options backdating derivative cases presented the possibility of significant potential losses for these types of coverages, but it is my understanding that the Side A-only losses from these cases really have not yet significantly materialized. There has been speculation that the subprime litigation wave might also produce significant Side A losses, but those cases are only in their earliest stages yet, so the losses have yet to fully develop.


The possibility of derivative settlements of the magnitude of the recent AIG settlement may represent the most significant threat to these Side A programs and coverages, at least outside of the bankruptcy context. Which is why I am curious to know which policy coverage funded the AIG D&O insurers’ portion of the AIG settlement.


Finally, I am curious about how likely coverage issues were dealt with in connection with this settlement. I expect that the insurers would have raised the personal profit exclusion typically found in most D&O policies as at least a potential defense to coverage. I am guessing that the existence of this issue complicated the settlement process (or at least the insurers’ contribution to the settlement). The absence of a judicial determination that the individuals had improperly profited undoubtedly ameliorated this potential impediment. The individuals’ desire to avoid any determination that might preclude coverage may have helped precipitate settlement on the eve of trial.


As always, I am interested if any readers can shed any light on the details. I am particularly interested details involved with the individuals’ contributions; around the extent of insurance funding for C.V. Starr’s contribution; and concerning AIG’s insurers’ contributions. Anonymity will be scrupulously protected.